The Dual Protection of a Micro Land Snail against a Micro Predatory Snail

Shinichiro Wada, Satoshi Chiba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Defense against a single predatory attack strategy may best be achieved not by a single trait but by a combination of different traits. We tested this hypothesis experimentally by examining the unique shell traits (the protruded aperture and the denticles within the aperture) of the micro land snail Bensonella plicidens. We artificially altered shell characteristics by removing the denticles and/or cutting the protruded aperture. These snails were offered to the carnivorous micro land snail Indoennea bicolor, which preys on the snails by gaining entry to their shell. B. plicidens exhibited the best defence when both of the traits studied were present; the defensive ability of B. plicidens decreased if either trait was removed and was further reduced if both traits were removed. These results suggest that a combination of different traits provides more effective defence against attack by the predator than either single trait by itself.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere54123
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jan 16


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