The Effect of Ca Pretreatment on the Characteristics of Rare-Earth Nonmetallic Inclusions in Super-Duplex Stainless Steel

Lichun Zheng, Zebin Ren, Kai Chen, Yan Li, Hiroshi Fukaya, Zhouhua Jiang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Rare-earth treatment enhances steel properties. Nevertheless, this beneficial effect can be counterbalanced by the formation of large-sized rare-earth inclusions. To refine and spheroidize these inclusions, Ca pretreatment is employed between Al deoxidation and Ce treatment stages for super-duplex stainless steel 2507 at 1580 °C, using a vertical tube furnace. A systematic analysis is performed to compare the characteristics of nonmetallic inclusions between the Ca-untreated and Ca-treated tests. Prior to Ce addition, Ca pretreatment transforms irregular and clustered MgO–Al2O3 spinel inclusions into spherical CaO–MgO–Al2O3 inclusions. Additionally, Ca pretreatment significantly reduces mean diameter of the inclusions from 2.36 ± 0.54 to 1.27 ± 0.47 μm. After Ce addition, rare-earth inclusions appear near-spherical with few clustered inclusions in Ca pretreatment case. Conversely, the absence of Ca treatment results in numerous clustered inclusions, thereby yielding significantly larger rare-earth inclusions, measuring 2.75 ± 1.66 μm compared to 1.99 ± 1.09 μm. CaO component in CaO–MgO–Al2O3 inclusions is largely reduced by Ce. Consequently, Ca pretreatment only yields slight alterations in chemical composition of rare-earth inclusions. Ce in situ reduces parent inclusions, initiating from the periphery and progressing toward the center. Therefore, the size and morphology of final rare-earth inclusions are largely inherited from parent inclusions.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSteel Research International
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024

Keywords

  • Ca treatment
  • compositions
  • duplex stainless steels
  • morphology
  • nonmetallic inclusions
  • rare earth
  • sizes

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