In this study, we investigated the impact of GD1a-expressing bacterial strains on the infectivity of murine norovirus (MNV). Eligible bacterial strains were screened from a sewage sample using flow cytometry, and their genetic sequences of 16S rRNA were determined. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to analyze the binding between bacteria and MNV particles, and the plaque assay was used to assess the effects of GD1a-positive and negative strains on MNV infectivity. The result from ELISA shows that MNV particles are able to bind to both GD1a-positive and negative bacterial strains, but the binding to the GD1a-positive strain is more significant. The infectivity assay result further shows that the MNV infectious titer declined with an increasing concentration of GD1a-positive bacteria. The addition of anti-GD1a antibody in the infectivity assay led to the recovery of the MNV infectious titer, further confirming that the binding between MNV particles and bacterial GD1a ganglioside compromises MNV infectivity. Our findings highlight the role indigenous bacteria may play in the lifecycle of waterborne enteric viruses as well as the potential of exploiting them for virus transmission intervention and water safety improvement.
- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
- GD1a ganglioside
- Murine norovirus
- Receptor glycan
- Specific virus–cell interaction
- Virus environmental fate