The effects of the Oryza sativa calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase OsCCaMK genotype (dominant homozygous [D], heterozygous [H], recessive homozygous [R]) on rice root-associated bacteria, including endophytes and epiphytes, were examined by using a Tos17 rice mutant line under paddy and upland field conditions. Roots were sampled at the flowering stage and were subjected to clone library analyses. The relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria was noticeably decreased in R plants under both paddy and upland conditions (0.8% and 3.0%, respectively) relative to those in D plants (10.3% and 17.4%, respectively). Population shifts of the Sphingomonadales and Rhizobiales were mainly responsible for this low abundance in R plants. The abundance of Anaerolineae (Chloroflexi) and Clostridia (Firmicutes) was increased in R plants under paddy conditions. The abundance of a subpopulation of Actinobacteria (Saccharothrix spp. and unclassified Actinosynnemataceae) was increased in R plants under upland conditions. Principal coordinate analysis revealed unidirectional community shifts in relation to OsCCaMK gene dosage under both conditions. In addition, shoot length, tiller number, and plant weight decreased as the OsCCaMK gene dosage decreased under upland conditions. These results suggest significant impacts of OsCCaMK on both the diversity of root-associated bacteria and rice plant growth under both paddy and upland field conditions.