The Influence of Pitch Velocity on Medial Elbow Pain and Medial Epicondyle Abnormality Among Youth Baseball Players

Daisuke Kurokawa, Takayuki Muraki, Hiroaki Ishikawa, Kiyotsugu Shinagawa, Hideaki Nagamoto, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Nobuyuki Yamamoto, Minoru Tanaka, Eiji Itoi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Pitch velocity is associated with elbow injuries among skillful baseball players. However, the relationship between pitch velocity and throwing elbow injuries among youth players has not yet been clarified. Purpose: To investigate the influence of pitch velocity on medial elbow pain and medial epicondyle abnormality among youth baseball players. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The participants consisted of 256 elementary school players (mean age, 11 ± 1 years; range, 9-12 years). The medial aspect of the elbow was evaluated using ultrasound imaging. A questionnaire was used to investigate past or present pain in the elbow, background of the players (age, height, body mass index, and years of baseball experience), and playing environment (number of days of practice in a week, experience as a pitcher, and cryotherapy of the shoulder and elbow after practice). Positioning of the scapula, range of motion in shoulder internal/external rotations and hip internal rotation, angle of the straight-leg raise, and heel-to-buttock distance were measured. The pitch velocity was recorded using a pitch velocity radar gun. The relationship between these variables and the presence of medial epicondyle abnormality, as well as past or present elbow pain, were statistically analyzed. Results: A medial epicondyle abnormality was observed in 130 players (51%), elbow pain in the past in 65 players (25%), and elbow pain during the examination in 14 players (5%). Sixty-nine players (27%) experienced elbow pain either in the past or during examination. Abnormality of the medial epicondyle had a relationship with the pitch velocity (odds ratio [OR], 1.1 for increase of 1 km/h; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2; P <.0001) and the number of practice days in a week (OR, 1.8 for increase of the practice days; 95% CI, 1.4-2.5; P <.0001). Pitch velocity was also significantly related with past pain, present pain, and past and/or present pain of the elbow (OR [km/h], 1.1, 1.1, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1, 1.0-1.2, 1.1-1.2; P <.0001, P =.002, P <.0001, respectively). Conclusion: Pitch velocity was significantly associated with abnormality of the medial epicondyle and elbow pain. A 10-km/h increase in pitch velocity would increase the risk of medial epicondyle abnormality and medial elbow pain by 3 times.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1601-1607
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Sports Medicine
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jun 1


  • medial epicondyle abnormalities
  • pitch velocity
  • throwing injuries
  • youth baseball players


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