The KamLAND full-volume calibration system

B. E. Berger, J. Busenitz, T. Classen, M. P. Decowski, D. A. Dwyer, G. Elor, A. Frank, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, K. M. Galloway, F. Gray, M. Heeger, L. Hsu, K. Ichimura, R. Kadel, G. Keefer, C. Lendvai, D. McKee, T. O'Donnell, A. PiepkeH. M. Steiner, D. Syversrud, J. Wallig, L. A. Winslow, T. Ebihara, S. Enomoto, K. Furuno, Y. Gando, H. Ikeda, K. Inoue, Y. Kibe, Y. Kishimoto, M. Koga, Y. Minekawa, T. Mitsui, K. Nakajima, K. Nakajima, K. Nakamura, K. Owada, I. Shimizu, Y. Shimizu, J. Shirai, F. Suekane, A. Suzuki, K. Tamae, S. Yoshida, A. Kozlov, H. Murayama, C. Grant, D. S. Leonard, K. B. Luk, C. Jillings, C. Mauger, R. D. McKeown, C. Zhang, C. E. Lane, J. Maricic, T. Miletic, M. Batygov, J. G. Learned, S. Matsuno, S. Pakvasa, J. Foster, G. A. Horton-Smith, A. Tang, S. Dazeley, K. E. Downum, G. Gratta, K. Tolich, W. Bugg, Y. Efremenko, Y. Kamyshkov, O. Perevozchikov, H. J. Karwowski, D. M. Markoff, W. Tornow, F. Piquemal, J. S. Ricol

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


We have successfully built and operated a source deployment system for the KamLAND detector. This system was used to position radioactive sources throughout the delicate 1-kton liquid scintillator volume, while meeting stringent material cleanliness, material compatibility, and safety requirements. The calibration data obtained with this device were used to fully characterize detector position and energy reconstruction biases. As a result, the uncertainty in the size of the detector fiducial volume was reduced by a factor of two. Prior to calibration with this system, the fiducial volume was the largest source of systematic uncertainty in measuring the number of antineutrinos detected by KamLAND. This paper describes the design, operation and performance of this unique calibration system.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberP04017
JournalJournal of Instrumentation
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Detector alignment and calibration methods (lasers, sources, particle-beams)
  • Detector design and construction technologies and materials
  • Large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Mathematical Physics


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