The mini blast furnace process: An efficient reactor for green pig iron production using charcoal and hydrogen-rich gas: A study of cases

Jose Adilson de Castro, Giulio Antunes de Medeiros, Elizabeth Mendes de Oliveira, Marcos Flavio de Campos, Hiroshi Nogami

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


The mini blast furnace process is an efficient route to produce pig iron based on the burden with granulated charcoal. New, improved technologies have recently been introduced in the mini blast furnace process, such as pulverized charcoal and gas injections, new burden materials, and peripheral devices that improve the overall process efficiency. In this paper, we revise the new injection possibilities and discuss new aspects for further developments. The analysis is carried out with a comprehensive multiphase multicomponent mathematical model using mass, momentum, and energy conservation principles coupled with the rate equations for chemical reactions, multiphase momentum, and heat exchanges. We analyze new technological possibilities for the enhancement of this process as follows: (i) a base case of pulverized charcoal injection with industrial data comparison; (ii) a set of scenarios with raceway injections, combining pulverized charcoal with hydrogen-rich fuel gas, replacing granular charcoal in the burden; (iii) a set of scenarios with hydrogen-rich gas injection at the shaft level, replacing reducing gas in the granular zone of the reactor; and the possible combination of both methodologies. The simulated scenarios showed that a considerable decrease in granular charcoal consumption in the burden materials could be replaced by combining a pulverized charcoal injection of 150 kg/tHM and increasing rich gas injections and oxygen enrichment values, decreasing the specific blast injection and granular charcoal. The productivity of the mini blast furnace process was increased for all scenarios compared with the reference case. We review the aspects of these operational conditions and present an outlook for improvements on the process efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1501
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Nov


  • Charcoal
  • Gas injection
  • Hydrogen
  • Kinetic models
  • Mathematical model
  • Mini blast furnace
  • Self-reducing burden

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)


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