The synthesis of lead-free ferroelectric Bi1/2Na 1/2TiO3 thin film by solution-sol-gel method

Chang Yeoul Kim, Tohru Sekino, Yo Yamamoto, Koichi Niihara

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37 Citations (Scopus)


Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3 (described as BNT) is considered as a promising lead-free ferroelectric material. In this study BNT sol was synthesized by mixing bismuth oxide and sodium carbonate dissolved in nitric acid and titanium tetraisopropoxide in ethylene glycol which was called a solution-sol-gel method and very cost-effective synthesis method while very high-cost metal alkoxides are used as precursors in conventional sol-gel method. FT-IR and Raman analyses indicated that the chemical modification of titanium tetraisopropoxide by glycolic acid or oxalic acid occurred and the synthesis of stable BNT sol was possible. In the results of high temperature X-ray analysis and DTA/TG analyses the crystallization of BNT was thought to occur at between 500 and 700°C following the evaporation of solvent and organics and poly-condensation processes. The main crystal phase of the film was identified as rhombohedral crystal phase of Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3 by XRD and Raman spectroscopy analyses although a small amount of Bi 4Ti3O12 existed as a second phase.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)307-314
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Mar
Externally publishedYes


  • Chemical modification
  • Crystallization
  • Ferroelectric
  • Lead-free
  • Solution-sol-gel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biomaterials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Materials Chemistry


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