The very early events following photoexcitation of carotenoids

Hideki Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Yanagi, Masayuki Yoshizawa, Dario Polli, Giulio Cerullo, Guglielmo Lanzani, Sandro De Silvestri, Alastair T. Gardiner, Richard J. Cogdell

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

49 Citations (Scopus)


The recent availability of laser pulses with 10-20fs duration, tunable throughout the visible and near infrared wavelengths, has facilitated the investigation, with unprecedented temporal resolution, into the very early events of energy relaxation in carotenoids [Science 298 (2002) 2395; Synth. Metals 139 (2003) 893]. This has enabled us to clearly demonstrate the existence of an additional intermediate state, Sx, lying between the S 2 (11Bu +) and S1 (2 1Ag -) states. In addition, by applying time-resolved stimulated Raman spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution, it has also been shown that vibrational relaxation in electronic excited states plays an important role in these interconversions. In this mini-review, we describe briefly the current understanding of Sx and the other intermediate excited states that can be formed by relaxation from S2, mainly focusing attention on the above two topics. Emphasis is also placed on some of the major remaining unsolved issues in carotenoid photochemistry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-69
Number of pages9
JournalArchives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Oct 1


  • Carotenoids
  • Excited state
  • Lycopene
  • Mini- and macro-β-carotenes
  • Neurosporene
  • Stimulated Raman
  • Sub-20 femtosecond
  • Time-resolved absorption
  • Vibrational relaxation


Dive into the research topics of 'The very early events following photoexcitation of carotenoids'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this