Two-dimensional surface-relief gratings with a period of 1.0-0.2 μm composed of rectangular microcavities were fabricated on single crystalline W substrates to develop spectrally selective radiators for thermophotovoltaic generation. The radiators displayed strong emission in the near-infrared region where narrow-band-gap photovoltaic cells could convert photons into electricity. The enhancement of thermal emission was attributed to the microcavity effect. Power generation tests were carried out and the W gratings showed more than two times higher generation efficiency, compared to a SiC radiator. The results showed that the microstructured W radiators behave as good selective radiator, with both high efficiency and high power density.