Three-dimensional imaging of dislocations in a Ti-35mass%Nb alloy by electron tomography

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We have studied three-dimensional (3D) configurations of dislocations in the β phase of a Ti-35mass%Nb alloy by means of single-axis tilt tomography using bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (BF-STEM). To visualize dislocations, the hh0 systematic reflections were excited throughout tilt-series acquisition with the maximum tilt angle of 70°. Dislocations in the β grains were clearly reconstructed by the weighted back-projection algorithm. The slip planes of the dislocations were deduced by rotating the reconstructed volumes with the aid of selected area electron diffraction patterns. It was found that BF-STEM images with relatively low contrasts, taken along low-order zone axes, are capable to reproduce and preserve the quality of reconstructed image of dislocations. We also found that tilt angles as low as 40° are practically acceptable to visualize 3D configurations of dislocations, while there exists limitation in resolution due to the existence of a large missing wedge.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1924-1933
Number of pages10
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • 3D configurations
  • Dislocations
  • Electron tomography
  • Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)
  • Ti-Nb


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