Biological phenomena induced by terahertz (THz) irradiation are described in recent reports, but underlying mechanisms, structural and dynamical change of specific molecules are still unclear. In this paper, we performed time-lapse morphological analysis of human cells and found that THz irradiation halts cell division at cytokinesis. At the end of cytokinesis, the contractile ring, which consists of filamentous actin (F-actin), needs to disappear; however, it remained for 1 hour under THz irradiation. Induction of the functional structures of F-actin was also observed in interphase cells. Similar phenomena were also observed under chemical treatment (jasplakinolide), indicating that THz irradiation assists actin polymerization. We previously reported that THz irradiation enhances the polymerization of purified actin in vitro; our current work shows that it increases cytoplasmic F-actin in vivo. Thus, we identified one of the key biomechanisms affected by THz waves.