Time of Day of Vaccination Does Not Associate With SARS–CoV–2 Antibody Titer Following First Dose of mRNA COVID–19 Vaccine

Yujiro Yamanaka, Isao Yokota, Atsushi Yasumoto, Eriko Morishita, Hisanori Horiuchi

Research output: Contribution to journalLetterpeer-review


The immune system exhibits circadian rhythms, and its response to viral infection is influenced by the circadian clock system. Previous studies have reported associations between the time of day of vaccination against COVID-19 and production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titer. We examined the effect of vaccination time of day on anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titer after the first dose of vaccination with the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine in an adult population. A total of 332 Japanese adults participated in the present study. All participants were not infected with SARS-CoV-2 and had already received the first dose of mRNA-1273 2 to 4 weeks prior to participating in the study. The participants were asked to provide basic demographic characteristics (age, sex, medical history, allergy, medication, and mean sleep duration), the number of days after the first dose of vaccination, and the time of day of vaccination. Blood was collected from the participants, and SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers were measured. Ordinary least square regression was used for assessing the relationship between basic demographic characteristics, number of days after vaccination, time of day of vaccination, and the log10-transformed normalized antibody titer. The least square mean of antibody titers was not associated with the vaccination time and sleep durations. The least square means of antibody titers was associated with age; the antibody titers decreased in people aged 50 to 59 years and 60 to 64 years. The present findings demonstrate that the vaccination time with mRNA-1273 was not associated with the SARS-CoV-2 antibody titer in an adult population, suggesting that these results do not support restricting vaccination to a particular time of day. The present findings may be useful in optimizing SARS-CoV-2 vaccination strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)700-706
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biological Rhythms
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec


  • SARS-CoV-2
  • antibody titer
  • general adults
  • mRNA-1273
  • time of day

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Time of Day of Vaccination Does Not Associate With SARS–CoV–2 Antibody Titer Following First Dose of mRNA COVID–19 Vaccine'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this