To study the immune responses of porcine intestinal epithelial cells to gram-negative bacteria via toll-like receptors (TLRs), originally established porcine intestinal epitheliocyte (PIE) cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or swine-specific enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that PIE cells expressed TLR1-9 and MD-2 mRNAs, preferentially expressed TLR4/MD-2. Immunostaining of PIE cells revealed that TLR4 was precisely expressed in PIE cells at the protein level. PIE cells treated with LPS had up-regulated expression of several TLRs (TLR2, 3, 4, 5 and 8), type 1 helper T (Th1) cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-15, 18, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and interferon (IFN)-β), and chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and IL-8). ETEC enhanced the expression of TLR2, Th1 type cytokines (IL-1α, IL-12p35 and IL-6) and chemokines (MCP-1 and IL-8). These results indicate that PIE induces inflammatory responses by up-regulating Th1 cytokines and chemokines in response to LPS or ETEC, suggesting that PIE is a useful cell line for studying inflammatory responses via TLR4/MD-2 in intestinal epithelial cells.
- Intestinal epitheliocyte
- Toll-like receptor