Thromboxane (TX) A2 exerts contraction and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via its specific membrane TX receptor (TXR), possibly leading to the progression of atherosclerosis. A nuclear hormone receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, has recently been reported to be expressed in VSMCs. Here we examined a role of PPAR-γ in TXR gene expression in VSMCs. PPAR-γ ligands 15-deoxy-Γ12,14-prostaglandin J2 and troglitazone reduced TXR mRNA expression levels as well as cell growth as assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Transcriptional activity of the TXR gene promoter was suppressed with PPAR-γ ligands, and the suppression was augmented further by PPAR-γ overexpression. By deletion and mutation analyses, the transcription suppression was shown to be the result of a -22/-7 GC box-related sequence (upstream of transcription start site). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays also showed that the sequence was bound by Sp1 but not by PPAR-γ, and the formation of a Sp1·DNA complex was inhibited either by coincubation with PPAR-γ or PPAR-γ ligand treatment of VSMCs. Moreover, glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays demonstrated a direct interaction between PPAR-γ and Sp1. In conclusion, PPAR-γ suppresses TXR gene transcription via an interaction with Sp1. PPAR-γ may possibly have an antiatherosclerotic action by inhibiting TXR gene expression in VSMCs.