FcγRIIB1 molecules serve as negative feedback regulator for B cell Ag receptor-elicited activation of B cells; thus, any impaired FcγRIIB1 function may possibly be related to aberrant B cell activation. We earlier found deletion polymorphism in the Fcgr2b promoter region among mouse strains in which systemic autoimmune disease-prone NZB, BXSB, MRL, and autoimmune diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic, but not NZW, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice have two identical deletion sites, consisting of 13 and 3 nucleotides. In this study, we established congenic C57BL/6 mice for NZB-type Fcgr2b allele and found that NZB-type allele down-regulates FcγRIIB1 expression levels in germinal center B cells and up-regulates IgG Ab responses. We did luciferase reporter assays to determine whether NZB-type deletion polymorphism affects transcriptional regulation of Fcgr2b gene. Although NZW- and BALB/c-derived segments from position -302 to +585 of Fcgr2b upstream region produced significant levels of luciferase activities, only a limited activity was detected in the NZB-derived sequence. EMSA and Southwestern analysis revealed that defect in transcription activity in the NZB-derived segment is likely due to absence of transactivation by AP-4, which binds to the polymorphic 13 nucleotide deletion site. Our data imply that because of the deficient AP-4 binding, the NZB-type Fcgr2b allele polymorphism results in up-regulation of IgG Ab responses through down-regulation of FcγRIIB1 expression levels in germinal center B cells, and that such polymorphism may possibly form the basis of autoimmune susceptibility in combination with other background contributing genes.