Transferring genes into cultured mammalian embryos by electroporation

Masanori Takahashi, Tadashi Nomura, Noriko Osumi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


Mammalian whole embryo culture (WEC) was developed long before transgenic and gene targeted animals are widely used. Electroporation (EP) into cultured rodent embryos has expanded the potential to analyze gene functions in mammalian embryos by transferring exogenous plasmid vectors or small nucleotides in region- and stage-specific ways. This method is quite simple, and therefore enables us to analyze gene functions more quickly than genetic manipulation. In this review, we introduce combinatorial methods of WEC and EP, and summarize various applications in developmental neurobiology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)485-497
Number of pages13
JournalDevelopment Growth and Differentiation
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Aug


  • Brain development
  • Electroporation
  • Mouse
  • Rat
  • Whole embryo culture


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