Transformation of carbon onions to diamond by low-temperature heat treatment in air

Satoshi Tomita, Minoru Fujii, Shinji Hayashi, Keiichi Yamamoto

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


We have demonstrated the transformation of spherical carbon onions to diamond by low-temperature heat treatment. Carbon onions were prepared by 1700 °C annealing of diamond nanoparticles. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction showed that diamond nanoparticles transformed into the carbon onions and no trace of diamond was detected after the annealing. Carbon onions were subsequently heat treated at 500 °C in air. HRTEM images showed that diamond particles several tens of nanometers in diameter as well as the carbon onions coexist after the heat treatment in air. The results suggest that the onions transformed to diamond at a low-temperature under atmospheric pressure without electron and ion irradiation. From detailed HRTEM and electron energy-loss spectroscopy studies, sp3 sites in the onions and oxygen during the heat treatment are considered to play important roles in the transformation without any irradiation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)856-860
Number of pages5
JournalDiamond and Related Materials
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2000
Event10th European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-like Materials, Carbon Nanotubes, Nitrides and Silicon Carbide - Prague, Czech Republic
Duration: 1999 Sept 121999 Sept 17


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