The electrical resistance of ferromagnetic/normal-metal (formula presented) heterostructures depends on the nature of the junctions that may be tunnel barriers, point contacts, or intermetallic interfaces. For all junction types, the resistance of disordered (formula presented) perpendicular spin valves as a function of the angle between magnetization vectors is shown to obey a simple universal law. The spin-current induced magnetization torque can be measured by the angular magnetoresistance of these spin valves. The results are generalized to arbitrary magnetoelectronic circuits.
|Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
|Published - 2003 Mar 25