Noninvasive, glucose-monitoring technologies using infrared spectroscopy that have been studied typically require a calibration process that involves blood collection, which renders the methods somewhat invasive. We develop a truly noninvasive, glucose-monitoring technique using mid-infrared spectroscopy that does not require blood collection for calibration by applying domain adaptation (DA) using deep neural networks to train a model that associates blood glucose concentration with mid-infrared spectral data without requiring a training dataset labeled with invasive blood sample measurements. For realizing DA, the distribution of unlabeled spectral data for calibration is considered through adversarial update during training networks for regression to blood glucose concentration. This calibration improved the correlation coefficient between the true blood glucose concentrations and predicted blood glucose concentrations from 0.38 to 0.47. The result indicates that this calibration technique improves prediction accuracy for mid-infrared glucose measurements without any invasively acquired data.
- domain adaptation
- mid-infrared spectroscopy
- neural network
- Noninvasive glucose monitoring