Use of cavitating jet for introducing compressive residual stress

H. Soyama, J. D. Park, Masumi Saka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)


In an attempt to strengthen the surface of materials, the potential of using a cavitating jet to form compressive residual stress has been investigated. Introducing compressive residual stress to a material surface provides improvement of the fatigue strength and resistance to stress corrosion cracking. In general, cavitation causes damage to hydraulic machinery. However, cavitation impact can be used to form compressive residual stress in the same way as shot peening. In the initial stage, when cavitation erosion progresses, only plastic deformation, without mass loss, takes place on the material surface. Thus, it is possible to form compressive residual stress without any damage by considering the intensity and exposure time of the cavitation attack. Cavitation is also induced by ultrasonic, high-speed water tunnel and high-speed submerged water jet, i.e., a cavitating jet. The great advantage of a cavitating jet is that the jet causes the cavitation wherever the cavitation impact is required. To obtain the optimum condition for the formation of compressive residual stress by using a cavitating jet, the residual stresses on stainless steel (JIS SUS304 and SUS316) and also copper (JIS C1100) have been examined by changing the exposure time of the cavitating jet. The in-plane normal stresses were measured in three different directions on the surface plane using the X-ray diffraction method, allowing for the principal stresses to be calculated. Both of the principal stresses are found changing from tension to compression within a 10 s exposure to the cavitating jet. The compressive residual stress as a result of the cavitating jet was found to be saturated after a certain time, but it starts decreasing, and finally, it approaches zero asymptotically. It could be verified in the present study that it was possible to form compressive residual stress by using a cavitating jet, and the optimum processing time could also be realized. The great difference between the water jet in water and air has also been shown in this regard.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-89
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Transactions of the ASME
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2000 Feb

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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