Maillard reactions are among the most important of the chemical and oxidative changes occurring in food and biological samples that contribute to food deterioration and to the pathophysiology of human disease. Although the association of lipid glycation with this process has recently been shown, the number of lipid glycation products in food and biological materials has not been clear. In this study, we synthesized the Amadori products derived from the glycation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), i.e., Amadori-PEs. Dioleoyl PE was incubated with glucose and lactose for 15 days, and the resultant Amadori-PEs were purified and isolated using solid phase extraction followed by HPLC. With this procedure, essentially pure (>98% purity) Amadori-PEs glycated with glucose (Glc-PE) and with lactose (LacPE) were obtained and used as standards in the subsequent studies. To determine the presence of Amadori-PEs in food and biological samples, the carbonyl group of Amadori-PEs was ultraviolet (UV)-labeled with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone, and the labeled Amadori-PEs were analyzed with normal phase HPLC-UV (318 nm). The detection limit was 4.5 ng (5 pmol) for Glc-PE and 5.3 ng (5 pmol) for Lac-PE. Among the several food samples examined, infant formula and chocolate contained a high amount of both Glc-PE and Lac-PE over wide concentration ranges, such as 1.5-112 μg/g. Testing biological materials showed AmadoriPE (Glc-PE) was detectable in rat plasma.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Lipid Research|
|Publication status||Published - 2002|
- 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone
- Amadori product determination