Variant selection in grain boundary nucleation of upper bainite

T. Furuhara, H. Kawata, S. Morito, G. Miyamoto, T. Maki

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101 Citations (Scopus)


The crystallography of bainitic ferrite nucleated at austenite grain boundaries was studied in an Fe-9Ni-0.15C (mass pct) alloy. The relationship between bainitic ferrite orientations (variants) and grain boundary characters, i.e., misorientation and boundary orientation, was examined by electron backscatter diffraction analysis in scanning electron microscopy and serial sectioning observation. Bainitic ferrite holds nearly the Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) orientation relationship with respect to the austenite grain into which it grows. At the beginning of transformation, the variants of bainitic ferrite are severely restricted by the following two rules, both advantageous in terms of interfacial energy: (1) smaller misorientation from the K-S relationship with respect to the opposite austenite grain and (2) elimination of the larger grain boundary area by the nucleation of bainitic ferrite. As the transformation proceeds, variant selection establishing plastic accommodation of transformation strain to a larger extent becomes important. Those kinds of variant selection result in formation of coarse blocks for small undercooling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1003-1013
Number of pages11
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Volume39 A
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2008 May

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys


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