Venous malformations of the lower limb: A review of 110 cases

Noriko Saito, Satoru Sasaki, Tadashi Shimizu, Munetomo Nagao, Munezumi Fujita, Noriko Nishioka, Kosuke Ishikawa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Venous malformations (VMs) are slow-flow vascular malformations that are present at birth and gradually worsen during the lifetime of the patient. Lower-limb VMs are either localized or diffuse and extensive, and they infiltrate the skin, muscles, joints, and occasionally the bones. A retrospective review of medical records and imaging details of 110 patients with lower-limb VMs was performed. The presentation, associated features, and radiographic findings were documented. The extent of the VM lesions was categorized into upper (24 %), lower (44 %), and whole leg involvement (33 %) types, and the depth was categorized into subcutaneous (21 %), muscle (77 %), and bone involvement (3 %) types. The majority of the patients in our series had pain. Eleven patients (10 %) had joint deformity secondary to VM involvement of the soft tissues. Twenty-one patients (19 %) had a leg length discrepancy. Radiographic imaging indicated the presence of microarterio-venous shunts in all such patients. The management of VMs in the upper and lower limbs is complex. In contrast, we have encountered a case of whole-leg VM with no complications that has been treated multiple times with sclerotherapy at our facility. An optimal management strategy can yield acceptable results with minimal morbidity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)679-686
Number of pages8
JournalJapanese Journal of Plastic Surgery
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jun 1
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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