Virtually peeling off the skull and scalp: A simple way of mapping the superficial cerebral veins on the brain surface

X. Y. Gong, S. Higano, S. Mugikura, A. Umetsu, Takaki Murata, T. Kumabe, Syouki Takahashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: A simple MRI postprocessing technique was developed to display superficial cerebral veins (SCVs) along with brain surface structures. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one consecutive patients with brain tumors were studied. All patients underwent brain MR examination, from which three-dimensional (3D) images were reconstructed. Simulation images of craniotomy were created by cutting away the signal from the skull and scalp at the region corresponding to the window planned for surgery. Detectability of the SCVs was evaluated by comparing the simulation images with intraoperative photographs. Reasons for those undetectable SCVs on simulation images of craniotomy were discussed. Results: Detectability of the SCVs >2 mm was 100%; those from 1 to 2 mm was 88.5%, and those from 0.5 to 1 mm 56.9%. Effacement of cortical sulci/subarachnoid space around the supposed craniotomy site, dural/meningeal contrast enhancement and insufficient spatial resolution of the source images were regarded as the main reasons for undetectable SCVs. Conclusion: Virtually peeling off the skull and scalp well demonstrates the SCVs along with brain surface structures. This simple technique can provide useful information about the SCVs and their relationships with cortical structures and tumors for preoperative surgical planning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)345-350
Number of pages6
JournalStereotactic and functional neurosurgery
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Dec


  • Brain surface
  • Cerebral veins
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Surgical simulation
  • Three-dimensional image

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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