The aim of this study was to investigate differences in volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) values according to facility size in Japan. A questionnaire survey was sent to 3000 facilities throughout Japan. Data from each facility were collected including bed number, computed tomography (CT) scan parameters employed and the CTDIvol and/or DLP values displayed on the CT scanner during each examination. The CTDIvol and DLP for 11 adult and 6 paediatric CT examinations were surveyed. Comparison of CTDIvol and DLP values of each examination according to facility size revealed key differences in CT dose between small and large facilities. This study highlights the importance of lowering the dose of coronary artery examination with contrast agent in smaller facilities and of lowering the dose of adult and paediatric head CT without contrast agent in larger facilities. The results of this study are valid in Japan.