'Walking-Mode Maps' based on Slip/Non-Slip criteria

Takeshi Yamaguchi, Kazuo Hokkirigawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


'Walking-Mode Maps', based on Slip/Non-Slip criteria, are proposed. Slip/Non-Slip criteria are expressed as follows: • for a slip to occur: |Fh/Fn|h ≥ μs or |F h/Fn|t ≥ μs • for no slip to occur: |Fh/Fn|h < μs or |Fh/Fn|t < μs |F h/Fn|h and |Fh/Fn/ t are the maximum peak value of the traction coefficient at heel-strike and toe-off respectively, and μs is the static friction coefficient between shoe sole and walkway. The 'Walking-Mode Map' for the level-surface shows the possible regime of each walking mode as Slip, Slip possible or No slip. Our results, which are based upon a small population and strictly-specified test conditions, indicate that a static friction coefficient higher than 0.47 will prevent both forward and backward slips under our test conditions and under a range of step lengths of 0.55 to 0.95 m and walking speeds of 1.0 to 1.9 m/s. We also found that shorter steps reduce the chance of a slip. A 'Walking-Mode Map' for inclined-surface ambulation has also been developed. The inclined-surface results show the friction and inclination-angle-related regime of each walking mode: Slip, Forward slip at heel-strike phase in descending, Backward slip at toe-off phase in ascending, or No slip. Again, extreme caution must be taken in generalizing these small-sample results (n=1, for the inclined tests) to the general population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-31
Number of pages9
JournalIndustrial Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Jan


  • Fall
  • Slip
  • Static friction coefficient
  • Traction coefficient
  • Walking-Mode Map

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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