The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) is a main mutagenic photolesion in DNA produced by UVR. We previously studied the wavelength-dependent kinetics of mutation induction efficiency using monochromatic UVR sources and transgenic mice developed for mutation assay and established the action spectra of UVR mutagenicity in the mouse epidermis and dermis. Here, we further established the action spectra of CPD and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproduct formation in the same tissues and in naked DNA using the same sources and mouse strain. Quantitative ELISA helped us estimate the photolesion formation efficiencies on a molecule-per-nucleotide basis. Using these action spectra, we confirmed that the UVR mutation mostly depends on CPD formation. Moreover, the mutagenicity of a CPD molecule (CPD mutagenicity) was found to vary by wavelength, peaking at approximately 313 nm in both the epidermis and dermis with similar wavelength-dependent patterns. Thus, the CPD formation efficiency is a main determinant of UVR mutagenicity in mouse skin, whereas a wavelength-dependent variation in the qualitative characteristics of CPD molecules also affects the mutagenic consequences of UVR insults. In addition, the CPD mutagenicity was always higher in the epidermis than in the dermis, suggesting different cellular responses to UVR between the two tissues irrespective of the wavelength.