Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease

Atsuko Hayashi, Hiroshi Nomura, Ruriko Mochizuki, Ayumu Ohnuma, Teiko Kimpara, Kyoko Suzuki, Etsuro Mori

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Background/Aims: We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji). Methods: A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. Results: For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant. Conclusions: The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)309-319
Number of pages11
JournalDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Sept 4


  • Dementia
  • Kana
  • Kanji
  • Mild cognitive impairment
  • Narrative writing
  • Writing disorder


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