XPS Investigation of Indium-Saving Indium–Tin Oxide (ITO) Thin Films

S. Petrovska, B. Ilkiv, O. Khyzhun, M. Ohtsuka, R. Sergiienko, L. Voisin, T. Nakamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Indium–tin oxide (ITO) thin films with reduced to 50 mass.% indium oxide content are grown by direct current (DC) sputtering of ITO target in mixed argon–oxygen atmosphere onto glass substrates preheated at 523 K. The films showing the best electrical properties are subsequently heat-treated in air at temperatures of 523 and 623 K for 60 min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) are used for samples’ characterization. Effects of oxygen-flow rate, Sn con-tent, and heat-treatment temperature on electronic properties are studied and discussed. XPS measurements show that indium is in In3+ charge state, and tin is only in Sn4+ state in indium-saving ITO thin films sputtered at different conditions and heat-treated at different temperatures. As-deposited indium-saving ITO thin film sputtered at 0.5 cm3STP/min oxygen-flow rate, which demonstrates the highest conductivity among the as-deposited thin films, shows the highest relative intensity of OII peak. The electron density of states increases when going from indium-saving thin film to typical ITO one.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)305-320
Number of pages16
JournalNanosistemi, Nanomateriali, Nanotehnologii
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • indium–tin oxide
  • thin films
  • x-ray emission spectroscopy
  • x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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