Circulatory maintenance with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) alone during cardiac arrest until heart transplantation has been evaluated. To assess the effect on the autonomic nervous system, the sympathetic neurogram was analyzed by power spectrum and coherence function. LVAD were inserted between the left atrium and the descending aorta in seven adult mongrel dogs and ventricular fibrillation was induced electrically. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) was detected by bipolar electrodes attached to the left renal sympathetic nerve. Values of squared coherence between the arterial pulse wave and RSNA were calculated. Under the condition of circulatory maintenance with only LVAD, coherence at the cardiac rhythm frequency was decreased, and coherence at the LVAD pumping rhythm frequency was increased. These results indicate that the arterial pulse wave observed during maintenance of the circulation with only LVAD contributed to the sympathetic neurogram.