This study addresses the influence of Na2B10O16, which may be used for criticality control of fuel debris in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in diluted artificial seawater. The corrosion forms of carbon steel were categorized as uniform corrosion, localized corrosion, and passivity based on the balance between the dilution ratio of artificial seawater and the concentration of Na2B10O16. The changes in corrosion forms were arranged on a water quality region map. Passivity was maintained by adding 3.7 × 10−2 M or more of Na2B10O16 to artificial seawater with a dilution ratio of 100-fold or more. The criticality control of the fuel debris and corrosion mitigation of the carbon steel components may be achieved simultaneously in the water quality. The prediction of the corrosion form of carbon steel was attempted by the extended Larson–Skold Index (LSI) = ([Cl−] + 2[SO42−])/([HCO3−] + 2[B10O162−]). However, because the passivating action of B10O162− was remarkably stronger than that of HCO3−, the prediction was difficult under the simple addition of equivalent concentrations. The localized corrosion of carbon steel under the addition of Na2B10O16 preferentially occurred from the crevices of the test specimens, as was the case in stainless steel.