The wild relatives of rice (Oryza sativa L.) are useful sources of alleles that have evolved to adapt in diverse environments around the world. Oryza rufipogon, the known progenitor of the cultivated rice, harbors genes that have been lost in cultivated varieties through domestication or evolution. This makes O. rufipogon an ideal source of value-added traits that can be utilized to improve the existing rice cultivars. To explore the potential of the rice progenitor as a genetic resource for improving O. sativa, 33 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) of O. rufipogon (W0106) in the background of the elite japonica cultivar Koshihikari were developed and evaluated for several agronomic traits. Over 90% of the entire genome was introgressed from the donor parent into the CSSLs. A total of 99 putative QTLs were detected, of which 15 were identified as major effective QTLs that have significantly large effects on the traits examined. Among the 15 major effective QTLs, a QTL on chromosome 10 showed a remarkable positive effect on the number of grains per panicle. Comparison of the putative QTLs identified in this study and previous studies indicated a wide genetic diversity between O. rufipogon accessions.