Mandibular protrusion accompanies acromegaly or acrogigantism. To clarify the detailed mechanisms, we used an acromegaly-like rat model recently developed by exogenous administration of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Human recombinant IGF-I (640μg/day) continuously was infused subcutaneously to 10-week-old male rats (n = 12) for four weeks. Control, sham-operated animals (n = 12) were injected with saline alone. Twelve rats (six from each group) were killed immediately after ending administration at age 14 weeks. Another 12 rats (six from each group) were housed for an additional four weeks after treatment ended. Mandibular condylar length increased significantly in the IGF-I rats compared with the control rats, but no significant intergroup difference was found in the lengths of the coronoid and angular processes. Cartilaginous layer width, bone matrix volume, and the number of osteoblasts in the mandibular condyle increased significantly in the IGF-I group. These histopathological changes in the condyle disappeared after IGF-I administration was discontinued; however, the morphological change in condylar length remained. These findings suggest that mandibular protrusion in patients with acromegaly or acrogigantism may be evoked by superfluous elongation of the mandibular condyle and that such elongation can be induced by endochondral ossification caused by high IGF-I serum levels.