The reaction mechanism for the dehydration of 1,4-butanediol in hot water has been investigated by means of the hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical approach combined with the theory of energy representation (QM/MM-ER). We have assumed that the proton transfers along the hydrogen bonds of the water molecules catalyze the reaction, where the transition state (TS) forms a singlet biradical electronic structure. It has been revealed by the simulation that the biradical electronic state at the TS changes to zwitterionic structure in solution due to the hydration of the polar solvent. Such the electronic structure change gives rise to the substantial stabilization of the TS in hot water. As a result, the water-catalytic path becomes more favorable in aqueous solution than another possible path that proceeds without proton transfers as opposed to the reaction mechanism in the gas phase. Furthermore, the activation free energy computed by the present method is in excellent agreement with the experimental result.