Non-contact scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (NC-SNDM) operated under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions was developed. This microscopy enables the simultaneous measurement of the topography and dielectric properties of a specimen. For electrically conductive materials, the tunnelling current is also measurable. The atomic structure of Si(111)7 × 7 was successfully resolved using this new SNDM technique. This is the first report on the achievement of atomic resolution in capacitance measurements.