Although widespread cortical thinning centered on the fronto-temporal regions in schizophrenia has been reported, the findings in at-risk mental state (ARMS) patients have been inconsistent. In addition, it remains unclear whether abnormalities of cortical thickness (CT) in ARMS individuals, if present, are related to their functional decline irrespective of future psychosis onset. In this multicenter study in Japan, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline in 107 individuals with ARMS, who were subdivided into resilient (77, good functional outcome) and non-resilient (13, poor functional outcome) groups based on the change in Global Assessment of Functioning scores during 1-year follow-up, and 104 age- and sex-matched healthy controls recruited at four scanning sites. We measured the CT of the entire cortex and performed group comparisons using FreeSurfer software. The relationship between the CT and cognitive functioning was examined in an ARMS subsample (n = 70). ARMS individuals as a whole relative to healthy controls exhibited a significantly reduced CT, predominantly in the fronto-temporal regions, which was partly associated with cognitive impairments, and an increased CT in the left parietal and right occipital regions. Compared with resilient ARMS individuals, non-resilient ARMS individuals exhibited a significantly reduced CT of the right paracentral lobule. These findings suggest that ARMS individuals partly share CT abnormalities with patients with overt schizophrenia, potentially representing general vulnerability to psychopathology, and also support the role of cortical thinning in the paracentral lobule as a predictive biomarker for short-term functional decline in the ARMS population.