Background: Anatomical knowledge of the duodenojejunal flexure is necessary for abdominal surgeries, and also important for physiologic studies about the duodenum. But little is known about the anatomy of this region in mammals. Here, we examined comparative anatomy to understand the anatomical formation of the duodenojejunal flexure in mammals. Materials and methods: The areas around the duonenojejunal flexure were observed in mouse, rat, dog, pig, and human, and the anatomical structures around the duodenojejunal junction in the animals were compared with those in human. Results: The superior and inferior duodenal folds, and the superior and inferior duodenal fossae were identified in all examined humans. In pig, the structures were not clearly identified because the duodenum strongly adhered to the retroperitoneum and to the mesocolon. In mouse, rat, and dog, only the plica duodenocolica, which is regarded as the animal counterpart of the superior duodenal fold in human, was identified, and other folds or fossae were not observed, probably because the duodenum was not fixed to the parietal peritoneum in those animals. Transection of the plica duodenocolica could return the normally rotated intestine back to the state of non-rotation in rat. Conclusions: This study showed the anatomical similarities and dissimilarities of the duodenojejunal flexure among the mammals. Anatomical knowledge of the area is useful for duodenal and pancreatic surgeries, and for animal studies about the duodenum.